The factors that affect fertility (STDs). Why inflammatory markers rise in STD/PID. Why prostatitis and infection happens. Also explain the causes of systemic reaction. Why a patient would need a splenectomy after a diagnosis of ITP. Anemia and the different kinds of anemia (i.e., micro and macrocytic).

Factors that impact fertility (STDs). Sexually transmitted disorders (STDs), can have an effect on fertility for both men and women. STDs in females may cause pelvic inflammation disease (PID) which can result in scarring or damage to the fallopian tube. Scarring can block the egg’s ability to conceive or stop the fertilized egg implanting in your uterus. STDs in males may cause epididymitis. This can result in blockage of vas deferens (the tube which carries the sperm from your testicles into the urethra).

Why inflammatory markers rise in STD/PID: Inflammatory markers such as sed rate and C-reactive protein rise in STD/PID due to the body’s response to the infection. Inflammation is the body’s response to infection or injury, and these markers indicate the presence of inflammation.

What causes prostatitis or infection? Prostatitis refers to inflammation of the prostate gland that can be caused either by bacteria infection, or both. Bacteria can get into the prostate gland via the urethra. They also spread to the bloodstream from the bladder. Prostatitis is most commonly caused by Escherichiacoli or Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Causes of systemic reaction: A systemic reaction can occur when the body’s immune system responds to an infection or inflammation throughout the body. This can cause symptoms like fever, chills and increased heart beat.

Why a patient would need a splenectomy after a diagnosis of ITP: ITP, or immune thrombocytopenic purpura, is a condition in which the body’s immune system destroys platelets, leading to a decreased platelet count and an increased risk of bleeding. A splenectomy is recommended in severe cases to remove the spleen. This is the organ responsible for the destruction and growth of ITP platelets.

Anemia: There are two types of anemia, macrocytic and microcytic. Anemia refers to a lack of red blood cells and hemoglobin. A type of anemia where the size and number of red blood cell is smaller than normal, called microcytic anemia. It may also be due to an iron deficiency. Anemia known as macrocytic is when the red blood cell count is higher than normal. This could be due to folate or vitamin B12 deficiency. In this scenario, the patient’s CBC indicates a normal hemoglobin and hematocrit, so there is no evidence of anemia.

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