Explain the potential effect on nasopharynx or oropharynx development if substance abuse occurs during the first trimester of pregnancy  During a routine examination of a 3-month-old infant, the mother becomes concerned because her child will not turn his head toward a sound.

Are there physical assessment questions regarding the head, neck, eyes and throat? | Nursing

The first three months of pregnancy may see significant consequences for the development and health of the oropharynx. The effects of substances like alcohol, tobacco, and drugs on fetal growth can be reduced. There are also increased chances for preterm births and labor, as well as birth defects that affect the face and head, including malformations within the structures of the oropharynx and nasopharynx. The result could be a delayed normal developmental process, like a newborn who cannot turn his head to hear a sound when he is three months old. The toxins may cause damage to the hearing of babies exposed to them.

The potential consequences of drug abuse in pregnancy are important for mothers to know and be able to take action to provide their baby with a happy start. Parents should seek the advice of their doctor if they are concerned about developmental delays, or any other problems.

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