Discuss the risk factors for a myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction case study | Nursing homework help

MI (myocardial infarction) is an extremely serious condition that can lead to death. Hypertension, smoking and hyperlipidemia are all risk factors. In the case, Mr. Smith was a patient with a history coronary heart disease. Angina pectoris was another sign of MI. He experienced regular bouts.

Because of the blockage in the left coronary vessel’s descending branch, Smith was subject to irreversible cell injuries, specifically coagulative, which resulted in Mr. Smith suffering from heart muscle injury. The process of coagulative necrosis involves the loss of function and structure caused by denaturation in proteins. The obstruction of the coronary vessel can cause MI. This causes a deficiency in oxygen supply and nutrients to the heart muscle. It results in irreversible damage to and death to affected cells.

If the stressor has been removed, then reversible cell injuries refers to the first stage of cellular injury. The cell is able to recover and resume its normal function. Permanent cell injury, on the other side, is defined as permanent damage to cells, which can result in cell death. The duration and severity the stressor caused the damage. The duration of oxygen deprivation to the heart muscle (MI) determines how severe the damage is and what the prognosis will be for the patient.

The ischemia and hypoxia that occurs in MI is caused by the narrowing of the coronary vessels. The occlusion of the coronary artery causes inflammation and oxidative stress. It also triggers the release of enzymes and other cytokines that can exacerbate cellular damage. MI can cause pathophysiological problems such as an infarct and an area with ischemic injury. There is also the release biochemical markers liketroponin and CK-MB, and activation of the coagulation causa. Infarct zone is the region of irreversible damage to cells, while the ischemic injury area represents the area that has sustained irreversible injuries.

Subjective and objective MI findings will vary depending upon the degree of infarction and whereabouts. You may experience chest pain, discomfort, dizziness (sweating), shortness of breath and nausea. EKG findings, elevations in cardiac biomarkers (troponin and CK-MB), as well as imaging studies, such echocardiography or coronary angiography can all be objective. In Mr. Smith’s case, his EKG was diagnostic of MI, and a coronary angiography revealed an occlusion in the descending branch of the left coronary artery.

Myocardial Infarction, a serious medical condition, is caused by the narrowing of a coronary vessel. This causes irreversible damage to cells and leads to death. Smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes and obesity are risk factors for MI. The severity and duration of stressors will affect the degree of cellular damage. MI may present as subjective or objective symptoms. They can include discomfort in the chest and EKG changes. It is important to seek immediate medical attention in order to reduce the severity of cell damage and enhance the prognosis.


Higashi, Y., & Jinnouchi, H. (2019). Pathophysiology, biomarkers and risk factors for acute myocardial damage. Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy, 17(6): 413-425.

Libby, P. (2018). The mechanisms of acute coronary syndromes, and the implications for therapy. The latest

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