discuss the incidence and prevalence of the COPD, pathophysiology from an advanced practice perspective, physical assessment and examination, evidence-based treatment plan and patient education, as well as follow up and evaluation to assess the efficacy and outcomes of the evidence-based treatment plan for management of an episodic, acute, and chronic case involving the pathology(s) you are sharing.

Millions of people around the world are affected by chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). Globally, COPD is increasing in prevalence and incidence. In 2019, 384 million people were estimated to be living with COPD. COPD, a progressive condition, is characterised by airflow restriction that cannot be reversed. Chronic inflammation and lung damage are the main causes of COPD. This leads to hyperinflation, airflow obstruction and airtrapping.

A comprehensive respiratory evaluation is performed to evaluate COPD patients. This includes assessing their lung sounds and chest expansion. There are both pharmacological as well as non-pharmacological options for COPD management based on evidence. Bronchodilators and corticosteroids are some of the pharmacological treatments. Other non-pharmacological treatments include quitting smoking, rehabilitation of the lungs, and oxygen therapy.

COPD management is incomplete without patient education. This includes educating patients about the correct use of medication, self-management strategies and early detection of symptoms. It is crucial that patients with COPD are followed up and evaluated to determine the success and consequences of an evidence-based treatment program. The evaluation includes monitoring patients’ symptoms, lung function, and adherence to treatment plans. Evaluations of treatment outcomes can be aided by the use of patient-reported results and quality-of life measures.

COPD is a chronic, progressive disease that can be treated with a multidisciplinary and holistic approach. Advance practice nurses are crucial in managing COPD patients. Advanced practice nurses have the ability to help patients with COPD improve their quality of life and outcome through evidence-based treatment, education, follow-up, evaluation and patient education.

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