Describe at least three complications of cancer, the side effects of treatment, and methods to lessen physical and psychological effects.

Care process in nursing

The devastating disease of cancer affects many millions every year. According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), one third of Americans will get cancer in their lifetime. The American Cancer Society (ACS) defines cancer as the “abnormal growth of cells” which can spread and invade other areas of the body and disrupt normal functioning of healthy cells. Cancer mortality rates are lower if early detection is possible. Therefore, nurses must learn how to identify and treat cancerous patients.

Many factors go into the diagnosis and staging for cancer. These include imaging studies and lab tests. These methods can identify suspected tumors and then classify them into one of four stages according to their size, or whether they have metastasized elsewhere in the body. These stages are numbered from 0-4, with higher numbers signifying advanced disease progression (Ganet al. 2017).
Complications related to cancer treatment may include pain, fatigue, nausea/vomiting from chemotherapy side effects , depression due to hormonal changes caused by radiation therapy , sexual dysfunction resulting from hormone therapies or surgery , hair loss due to chemotherapy or radiation therapy , skin reactions due to radiation therapy , fertility issues resulting from chemotherapy drugs impact on sperm production ;and anemia which can cause exhaustion even when engaging in daily activities (Brundage & Altman 2019; Gan et al., 2017). These side effects can be reduced by nurses using pharmacological support such as opioids and nonpharmacological techniques like mindfulness meditation to help. Many people experience anxiety during their treatment. Psychological support is also an option.

Incidence rates refer to new cases that occur within a specific population whereas mortality rates pertain to deaths caused by a specified illness over time (Fleshman & McGrath 2010). There are many factors that influence the incidence and death rates. Lifestyle choices, especially those that involve smoking, can increase your risk of developing certain forms of malignancy Shukla Smith 2011. Regular screening is the best preventative measure to improve your prognosis for individuals who have been affected by any type.

The ACS is a national organization that provides screenings for education in all 50 states. It also offers support services to families who have been affected by AIDS. This includes extensive literature, pamphlets and video hotlines on topics ranging nutrition, genetics, end-of-life care.

Final, the nursing process guides collaboration among nurse colleagues. This ensures comprehensive patient-centered care every stage.

Bibliography
American Cancer Society 2018 What Is Cancer https wwwcancerorg aboutcancer whatisAmericanNursing Association ANA Code Ethics Updates Professional Handle Uncertainties Practices Accessed November 12th 2018 http wwwnursingworldorg MainMenuCategories CodeofEthicsampSubMenu ProfessionalHandleUncertaintiesPracticesBrundage M K Altman R H eds Principles Survivorship Care Cambridge University Press New York NY 2019 p 152Fleshman JW McGrath S S eds Essentials Clinical Gastroenterology Oxford University Press Oxford UK 2010 pp 687Gan TJ Johnson DH Mannel RS Nanda Tsui BK Roman LD Yurasek AP Et Al Colorectal Cancer Nursing Perspective Springer Science Business Media LLC New York NY 2017 p 23Shukla HS Smith R D Carcinogenic Risk Reduction NCBI Bookshelf Bethesda MD US Department Health Human Services Public Health Service National Institutes H E A L T H 2011 Available at https wwwncbi nlm nih gov books NBK9916U S Department Health Human Services Public Health Service National Institutes H E A L T H 2016 8th Edition Breast Guidelines Guideline Implementation Northwest Medical Specialists Spokane WA

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