Ddescribe the pathophysiology for your selected disease or illness, propose historical explanations for variations in findings (when applicable), and demonstrate use of nursing conceptual models to frame your discussion of adaptation and stressors collectively for system analysis.

Correctly use insulin. Diabetes is a complex disease that involves many physiological processes.

In type 1 diabetes, which accounts for about 5-10% of cases, the body’s immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leading to an absolute deficiency of insulin. This causes glucose to not be able to enter cells and leads hyperglycemia. In type 2 diabetes, which accounts for about 90-95% of cases, the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin, or the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin to meet the body’s needs.

Diabetes can cause chronic hyperglycemia, which leads to various complications such as damage to blood vessels and nerves. The damage may lead to vision loss, brain damage, kidney disease and stroke.

The limited technology and knowledge available at various times in history can explain the variations in diabetes treatment and understanding. Before insulin was discovered in 1921 and its effectiveness, diabetes management was limited to strict low carbohydrate diets. These were often unsuccessful and caused malnutrition. Although diabetes was made more manageable by insulin, the mortality rate and complications remained high because of the absence of long-term treatments and tools to monitor the condition. With medical advances and technological advancements, there have been many new medication, monitoring devices and intervention to aid diabetes management.

Nursing conceptual models like the Roy Adaptation Model and the Neuman System Model can help us understand the stressors and adaptations that diabetes patients experience. Based on the Roy Adaptation Model’s four adaptive modes, people can respond to stressors in physiological, self concept, role function, interdependence, and other ways. The four main modes of stress that diabetes can cause include: managing blood glucose, managing emotions, adapting to new roles, handling responsibilities and managing relationships with family and friends. Individuals are seen as systems of interconnected parts according to Neuman Systems Model. This includes their physiological, psychological, socialcultural and spiritual components. The imbalance of these parts can be disrupted by diabetes. This makes it difficult to manage the emotional and physical symptoms, deal with cultural and social norms and maintain spiritual and emotional well being.

Diabetes pathophysiology involves complicated physiological processes that can cause a variety of complications. Advancements in technology and medical research can explain variations in results over time. To understand stressors and adaptations in diabetes, nursing conceptual models are useful. They can also be used as a basis for analysis of the system.

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