(1) Which of the double-stranded DNA sequences below will require more heat to separate the two strands (select Option A or Option B)? (2) Why is more heat is required to separate the strands? Option A 5’-GGACTCCCGGGTGAG-3’ 3’-CCTGAGGGCCCACTC-5’ Option B 5’-AACTGTTTAAAGACA-3’ 3’-TTGACAAATTTCTGT-5’ (3) What will be the mRNA sequence that is produced during the transcription of the DNA sequence below?

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  1. Option A may require additional heat to separate both strands.
  2. Option A’s G-C bases have more hydrogen bonds than A-T, and Option A has three. G-C bases pairs with more hydrogen bonds are stronger, and therefore require more heat (energy) to separate them.
  3. The mRNA sequence produced during the transcription of the given DNA sequence would be 5′-ACGUCAGGUUUCCGU-3′. There is only one difference between DNA nucleotides and RNA nucleotides: RNA has uracil instead of thymine.
  4. The following four enzymes/proteins play an important role in the replication of human DNA:
  • DNA helicase: This enzyme breaks the hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs and unwinds DNA’s double helix structure.
  • DNA polymerase: The enzyme uses the template of the existing DNA strand to add nucleotides.
  • Primerse: This enzyme produces a brief RNA primer which serves as a point of departure for DNA polymerase, which can then begin to add nucleotides.
  • DNA ligase : This enzyme joins Okazaki pieces (smaller fragments from the lagging string) by creating a hydrogen bond.

Each enzyme plays an important role in DNA replication, making sure that genetic information can be accurately transmitted to the next generation.

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